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DT Froedge
gen-phys/032306

Personal Message (12-27-14)

The papers in this website are speculative work by the author, and are not standard physics. Those not sufficiently skilled in standard theory to recognize the departure, should probably leave this to others.

It is the preposition of the papers in this collection, that at a single event in spacetime, the Klein Gordon Dirac expression is absolutely accurate in defining energy transport. The equation has a greater reach in defining the universe than is generally recognized, and defines much more than particle probability distributions. Solutions to this equation which are series of events that do not compromise the expression, nor violate fourspace invariance, exist in both real and imaginary combinations. It can be shown that both classical (amplitudes) and quantum (phase) are features of single solutions, that can define both the Bohr-Sommerfeld mechanical structured atom to the Schrodinger-Dirac wave structure.

The papers presented here have evolved into an expanded solution of physical phenomena based on an expanded view of the Klein Gordon Dirac equation. A general particle solution defined by a gauge potential, with an action integrated over the life of the particle from the initial event,(big bang), to the current time, expresses the proper phase, amplitudes, and clearly defines the boundary between classical and quantum phenomena.

Connecting the phase and amplitude aspects of elementary particles, can provide a path for developing particle mass ratio values, and the development of a gravitational theory based local conservation of energy, rather than curved space, can be seamless incorporated into the solutions.

Physics

From: DT Froedge [phys-dtfroedge@glasgow-ky.com] Date (v72106): Thur, 23 mar 2006 08:36:18 CST (482kb) Presented APS Dallas Texas 3/23/06 Presented SEAPS Gainesville, FL 11/21/05 The Origin of the Klein-Gordon-Dirac(V113006):Day, 30 Nov 2006 12:00 CST (4,700kb) A Multiple particle- V071310(V071310):Day, 13 Jul 2010 12:00 CST (721kb) A Multiple particle- V020411(V020411):Day, 4 Feb 2011 12:00 CST (105kb) Particle Solution - V012714(V020411):Day, 27 Feb 2014 12:00 CST

Particle Solution to the Klein-Gordon-Dirac Equation in the Context of a Big Bang Universe

Authors: Authors: DT Froedge
Comments: 18 pages, 1 table, 62 equations
Journal-ref:

Abstract. The purpose of this paper is to develop a single solution to both the Klein-Gordon & Dirac equations that expresses both the QM and the classical aspects of particles. It is found that this can be done, but only in the context of a system that has an initial event (T = 0) and is expanding at c. Thus it is consistent with a big bang representation of the universe. The equations are defined in geometric algebraic, and the KGD equation will be considered a single equation factorable into products of the two linear Dirac expressions, with a single solution defined analogously to path integral solutions. The solution has both amplitude, (classical), and phase, (QM) components satisfying the quadratic KG equation, and the linear Dirac expression. The equation differentials are not restricted to representing the normal QM operator replacement of p and E, applicable to the linear equation, but have a broader context in operating on the more complex function with amplitude and phase factors. The solutions represent the particle at a single event, thus the standard view of the solution being a probability amplitude field over spacetime is not applicable, but an alternate observational field is illustrated that demonstrates the connection of the solutions to the observed wave characteristics. The phase factors are as usual cyclic, but the amplitude factors exist only in the context of the entire interval. The amplitude factor of the solution is proportional to mass and thus should offers insight into particle mass ratios.

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KeyWords. Klein Gordon.. Dirac.. Schrödinger equation... particles.. particle mass ratios.. mass ratio.. leptons.. proton.. neutron.. tau.. tauon.. mu muon.. clifford algebra.. coupled harmonic oscillator.. Matrix Representation.. Compton radius diameter.. Quark SU(2) SU(3) group.. cosmology



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Paper #1A

From: DT Froedge Physics [phys-dtfroedge@glasgow-ky.com] Date (V090210)Thru Sep 2 2010 2:22.00 CST (240kb) Date (V112910))Mon Nov 29 2010 12:00:00 CST (241kb)

Particle Mass Ratios

Authors: DT Froedge
Comments:10 pages, 240 kb 2 table 20 equations
Journal-ref:

ABSTRACT Based on the developments in a previous paper, this paper presents straight-forward basis for the understanding of particle mass ratios, giving the specific values for some well known particles. The additional Compton nuclear modes postulated, are similar to the Schrödinger modes in the atom. Although the mode values do not yet have a good theoretical basis, the patterns, and accuracy of the predicted values far exceed the possibility of random coincidence. .

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References:
[1] DT Froedge, Particle Solution to the Klein-Gordon-Dirac Equation in the Context of a Big Bang Universe : http://www.arxdtf.org/



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Paper #2

Gravitational Theory introduction revised 3/9/14.

This is a development contrasting gravitational theory, based on standard GR, with a flat space, local energy covariant alternative. It is asserted that the measurable phenomena predicted by GR can be predicted by assuming standard Lorentz invariance and local conservation of energy in a closed volume of fourspace. The incorporation of curved space gravitation into the other forces has proven illusive if not impossible. By casting gravitation as a locally conserved phenomena field, as are all other forces, the incorporation fits seamlesly into the gauge potential and removes barriers to a more unified theory. This is somewhat a revisitation of the early known problem of GR with energy conservation addressed by Noether’s theorem. Noether’s theorem definitively proved that in any volume of space, the gauge transforms of GR do not allow for the energy conservation. This is not an obstacle in solving the equations and making predictions that are incredibly accurate. Be that as it may, it is presumed here that Noether’s theorem is not an indicator of a physical reality, but the indicator of the approxomate nature of GR, and that some of the results i.e. black holes and dark energy,etc, are manifestations of that approximation. This is quite speculative but offers a measurable test of the black hole paradigm.

From: DT Froedge Physics [phys-dtfroedge@glasgow-ky.com] Date (V72106):Fri, 21 July 2006 11:20:00 CST (249kb) Date (v112906)Wed, 29 Nov 2006 11:20:00 CST (112kb) Date (v021507)Thu, 15 Feb 2007 09:25:00 CST (115kb) Date (v060307)Sun, 03 Jun 2007 05:16:00 CST (117kb) Date (v060707)Thu, 07 Jun 2007 07:05:00 CST (122kb) Date (v072207)Thu, 19 Jul 2007 12:59:00 CST (115kb) Date (V032208)Sat, 22 Mar 2008 12:59:00 CST (196kb) Date (V091813)Sun, 22 Mar 2013 12:59:00 CST (196kb) Presented: APS meeting, Jacksonville, Fl Apr. 14, 2007 http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/APR07/Event/64810

Gravitational Theory with Local Conservation of Energy

Authors: DT Froedge
Comments: 10 pages, 0 table 40 equations
Journal-ref:

ABSTRACT.The presentation here is based on the presumption that the total energy of a particle and photon in a gravitational field is localized and conserved. A mass particle thus entering a static gravitational field has an increasing velocity, but a decreasing rest mass, or a mass defect. The total energy is conserved. This also means that as a photon rises in a gravitational field there is no loss of energy, and therefore a photon escapes the most intense field, precluding the formation of a black hole. Since there is no energy change in an accelerating particle technically gravitation is not a force. It will be shown that such a theory of gravitation can be developed, that properly predicts known dynamic, has proper covariant transformations, the proper Shapiro velocity, and does not require formulation in curved space. Noether’s theorem definitively shows that contrary to all other forces, energy cannot be conserved nor localized in a Riemannian gauge field representation. It is presumed here that this is a flaw in GR, and it is asserted here that Noether’s theorem is not an indicator of a physical reality, but an indicator of the approximate nature of GR. This can best be tested in the observation of the properties of objects cited to be black holes. There are points of this development that are testable, and provable or disprovable in experiments on Black Holes and, Event Horizons.

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References:
[3] A. W. Strong et al,Gamma-ray continuum emission from the inner Galactic region as observed with INTEGRAL/SPI Astronomy & Astrophysics 3798 http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0509290
[4] H. P. Robertson, T.W. Noonan, in Relativity and Cosmology, (W. D. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1968), pp 148-241
[5] Conley Powell, General Relativity Unpublished (2005)
[6] R.V. Pound and J.L. Snider, Effect of gravity on gamma radiation, Phys. Rev. B 140:788-803 (1965).
[7] ( Roger Blandford, Kip S.Thorne, in Applications of Classical Physics, (in preparation, 2004), Chapter 26)



KeyWords.Schwarzschild radius,General Relativity,Event Horizon Telescope,LATOR mission, no black holes, absence of Black Holes,a theory of gravitation



revised 12/08/13. * This paper was presented at the APS April 2007 meeting in Jacksonville Fl. At the end of the presentation, the Chair: Dr. Gundlach commented, that I was probably the only person in the room that didn’t believe in the existence of black holes.

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Paper #2a

BackHvsVariable

From: DT Froedge Physics [phys-dtfroedge@glasgow-ky.com] Date (V032608)Wed,26 Mar. 2008 14:15.00 CST 94kb) Date (V121509):Tue,15 Dec. 2009 14:10.00 CST 284kb

Black Hole vs. Variable Rest Mass Neutron Star

Authors: DT Froedge
Comments:11 pages, 4 figures 19 equations
Journal-ref:

ABSTRACT In a previous paper we have discussed the conjecture of a variable particle rest mass as a function of gravitational potential [1]. This paper discuses the implications, in regard to a large neutron star, and contrast the difference between the predicted phenomena, and Black Hole theory as put fourth by standard GR. As most know, Einstein was not convinced of the existence of Black Holes, but modern solutions of the GR field equations appear to agree with the experimental evidence. There are some problems however, as are well known, the explanations for the diffuse, and the persistent source gamma ray emissions from the galactic center, do not have an adequate explanation, and the energy engines driving Quasars and AGNs are not sufficiently explained. This paper will explore the divergence between VRM neutron stars, and Black Holes for the purpose of offering some alternate explanations. The validity of this theory will be established on the finding of massive neutron stars or massive pulsars >3 suns, or the observation of photons originating below or passing closer than the Schwarzschild radius of the galactic center.

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References:
DT Froedge, Scalar Gravitational Theory with Variable Rest Mass: http://www.arxdtf.org/
All-sky view from Fermi GLAST reveals bright emission in the plane of the Milky Way All-sky map at energies above 100 MeV Credit: NASA/DOE/International LAT Team.
INTEGRAL SPI all-sky view in soft X-rays: Study of point source and Galactic diffuse emissions L., Bouchet et al., 2008, accepted for publication in ApJ; astro-ph:0801.2086).
The sky distribution of 511 Kev positron annihilation line emission as measured with Integral/SPI G.Weidenspointner1, et al http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0702621
Galactic g -ray Continuum with INTEGRAL/SPI A. Strong, MPE INTEGRAL/ESTEC Workshop
INTEGRAL insight into the inner parts of the Galaxy. High mass X-ray binaries. A.Lutovinov1 arXiv:astro-ph/0411550v2 29 Aug 2005
“20–100 keV range resulted in a soft gamma-ray sky populated with more than 200 sources, most of them being galactic binaries, either Black Hole Candidates (BHC) or Neutron Stars (NS). Very recently, the INTEGRAL new source IGR J18135-1751 has been identified as the soft gamma-ray counterpart of HESS J1813-178 and AXJ1838.0-0655 as the X/gamma-ray counterpart of HESS J1837-069”
Accretion Disk Torqued by a Black Hole, Li-Xin Li, Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544–1001, USA, arXiv:astro-ph/0012469v2 9 Mar 2001
Observing with a space-borne gamma-ray telescope: selected results from INTEGRAL Stéphane Schanne, CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/Service d'Astrophysique, 91191 Gif sur Yvette, France, 2006 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 41 46-60 doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/41/1/004 http://www.iop.org/EJ/article/1742-6596/41/1/004/jpconf6_41_004.pdf?request-id=6bae4f2f-e29c-4346-8ae0-1ec06d35b438
Rapid fluctuations of radio flux and polarization in quasar 3C273, V. A. EFANOV, I. G. MOISEEV, N. S. NESTEROV & N. M. SHAKHOVSKOY, Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, P/O Nauchny, Crimea, 334413, USSR, Nature 269, 493 - 494 (06 October 1977); doi:10.1038/269493a0

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Paper #2b

Image Comparisons

From: DT Froedge Physics [phys-dtfroedge@glasgow-ky.com] Date (V070114)Wed,1 Jul.. 2014 12:00.00 CST 94kb)



The predictions in this paper contrasts the image of a large mass neutron star demonstrated in the previous papers, and a GR Black Hole. This paper makes predictions that are sufficiently distinct that the Event Horizon Telescope under construction can give a definitive answer as to whether Sag A* is a Black Hole or a Dark Neutron Star as defined earlier. If the answer is that Sag A* is a Black Hole, and GR is correct, the papers on this page will vanish for there can be no reconciliation. If the image inside the shadow is not black, but a low luminosity fuzzy thermal ball, the limits of the GR approximation the will have been reached, and the Black Hole concept will have to be revisited.

Image Comparisons of Black Hole vs. Neutron Dark Star by Ray Tracing

Authors: DT Froedge
Comments:11 pages, 8 figures 18 equations
Journal-ref:

ABSTRACT In previous papers we have discussed the concept of a theory of gravitation with local energy conservation, and the properties of a large neutron star resulting when the energy of gravitation resides locally with the particle mass and not in the gravitational field [1][2][3]. A large neutron star’s surface radius grows closer to the gravitational radius as the mass increases, but is always slightly larger. As the mass increases there is a continuously greater mass defect for incoming particles. Since the localization of energy also applies to the photon, photons do not decrease energy rising in a gravitational field, and can escape, but there some caveats that must be considered. Photon trajectories in a strong gravitational field have some peculiar features that are not immediately obvious but can be investigated by the use of ray tracing procedures. The most notable is the fact that only a fraction of the blackbody radiation emitted from the surface escapes into space (about 0.00004% for Sag A*). The remainder enters orbit below the maximum photon orbit, and can constitute a horizontal photon atmosphere. Because of the low percent of escaping blackbody radiation, the heavy neutron stars considered in this paper will be referred to as a Neutron Dark Star (NDS). In contrast to the Black Hole (BH) which should be totally dark inside the photon shadow, the NDS will appear as a fuzzy low luminosity ball with a full width half maximum radius of about 3.85 Schwarzschild radii inside the shadow. This paper will investigate the difference in the appearance of a Neutron Dark Star and a Black Hole by using ray tracing techniques. The Event Horizon Telescope currently under development should be able to distinguish the difference between the theories.

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References:
DT Froedge, Scalar Gravitational Theory with Variable Rest Mass: http://www.arxdtf.org/
DT Froedge, Black Hole vs. Variable Rest Mass Neutron Star, V041912, http://www.arxdtf.org/
Noether's Discovery of the Deep Connection Between Symmetries and Conservation Laws arXiv:physics/9807044
T. Lacroix & J. Silk, Constraining the distribution of dark matter at the Galactic centre using the high-resolution Event Horizon Telescope, Aug 2013, arXiv:1211.4861 [astro-ph.GA]
Weinberg, S. 1972, Gravitation and Cosmology (New York: Wiley)
Roger Blandford, Kip S.Thorne, in Applications of Classical Physics, (in preparation, 2004), Chapter 26 http://www.pma.caltech.edu/Courses/ph136/yr2002/chap26/0226.1.pdf
F. Karimi, S. Khorasani, Ray-tracing and Interferometry in Schwarzschild Geometry, arXiv:1001.2177 [gr-qc]
Khorasani, Defections of Light and Shapiro Delay: An Equivalent Medium Theory Approach, arXiv:1206.1947v1 [gr-qc] 9 Jun 2012
Sheperd S. Doeleman1 et al, Event-horizon-scale structure in the supermassive black hole candidate at the Galactic Centre, Sep 2008 ,arXiv:0809.2442 [astro-ph]


Sheperd Doeleman, et al, Imaging an Event Horizon: Sub mm-VLBI of a Super Massive Black Hole, Jun 2009, http://arxiv.org/abs/0906.3899]

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Paper #3a

This paper illustrates that the velocity of light in a conservative
gravitational field can be deduced from the conservation of energy.

From: DT Froedge Physics [phys-dtfroedge@glasgow-ky.com] Date (v101914):Sun. 19 Oct 2014 (27kb)

The Velocity of Light in a Locally Conserved Gravitational Field

Authors: DT Froedge
Comments: 3 pages, 8 equations
Journal-ref:

ABSTRACT. From earlier papers, developing the theory of a locally conserved gravitational field, the relation between the gravitational potential for mass particles and the speed of light was developed, [1], [2], [3]. This note demonstrates that the velocity of light in a conserved gravitational field can be deduced from the motion of a photon. In the far zone, distant form the gravitation radius, the derived velocity is the same as the well known Shapiro velocity from General Relativity, approximating flat time. In the proximity of the gravitational radius, however there is sufficient distinction to draw conclusions regarding the relative merit of the theories.

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Paper #6

From: DT Froedge Physics [phys-dtfroedge@glasgow-ky.com] Date (v011715):Sat. 17 Jan 2015 Date (connection.pdf)V031515 :Sun. 15 Jan 2015 Current V032515: Wed. Mar. 25 2015

Gravitation is a Gradient in the Velocity of Light

Authors: DT Froedge
Comments: 11 pages, 2 figures 33 equations
Journal-ref:

ABSTRACT. It has long been known that a photon entering a gravitational potential follows a path identical to that of a photon in a variable speed of light defined by the Shapiro velocity for Minkowski flat space [1]. It is shown here that a particle defined as a pair of trapped photons in a massless box, having constant energy infalling a conservative gravitational field, is accelerated by a gradient in the velocity of light exactly as a particle in a gravitational potential [2], It is asserted that gravitation is a gradient in c produced by the presence of mass. The symmetry of the Lorentz transform between the change in velocity and the change in c is demonstrated as the mechanism for gravitational acceleration dv = dc . Also discussed are the QFT effects that define the total action path of photons which could induce an alteration in the velocity of light in the proximity of a photon path [3], and thus the mechanism for creating the effects of gravitation. .

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References:
None required



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Paper #7

From: DT Froedge Physics [phys-dtfroedge@glasgow-ky.com] Date (css/Gravitational waves.pdf):Sun. 2 Feb 2016 Current

Ligo Gravitational waves: Ripples in Spacetime or Electromagnetic

Authors: DT Froedge
Comments: 4 pages, 1 figures
Journal-ref:

ABSTRACT. On Thursday Feb. 2016 the Ligo team announced the detection of gravitational waves from a collapsing black hole on Sept 14 2015. This definitively answers the question of the existence of gravitational radiation, and confirms the pulsar radiation energy Measured by Hulse, R. A. & Taylor [1], [2], but it has not yet answered definitively the question of the nature of gravitational radiation. That question is whether the radiation is a ripple in spacetime, or an electromagnetic wave, clearly the most important issue since the theory’s origination in 1915. GR theorists would consider the question already answered, but there have been a number of theorists that have postulated an electromagnetic origin of gravitation, and even now the experimental evidence is not certain. .

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Paper #5

This paper was originally a novelty illustrating the physical similarities
of trapped photons to particles, has actually given some insight to the
mechanism of gravitation that has escaped notice, at least my notice.

From: DT Froedge Physics [phys-dtfroedge@glasgow-ky.com] Versions: V121706 Dec 17 2006 V060507 June 5 2007 V053007 May 30 2007 V022310 Feb 22 2010 V091513 Sept 15 2013 V090314 Sept 3 2014 V122014 Dec 20 2012 Date (v121706):Sun. 17 DEc 2006 (126kb) Date (v060507):Tue,5 June 2007 11:33 CST(139kb) Current: V032615 Mar 26 2015

The Concept of Mass as Interfering Photons

Authors: DT Froedge
Comments: 8 pages, 1 table 30 equations
Journal-ref:

ABSTRACT. For most purposes in physics the concept of mass particles and photons are treated as though they are completely separate and distinct entities having little connection accept through collision interactions. This paper explores the concept of a mass particle being viewed as a pair of trapped photons in a mass-less box demonstrating proper relativistic dynamics and, Lorentz covariance. The mechanism of trapping of the photons in a particle is not herein defined and not important to the discussion since it is not required by the mechanics or mathematics that they be connected. Although this presentation is more relatable to a simple particle such as an electron, the dynamics must be the same for all mass particles with primary constituents that have phase velocities equal to c. This illustrates the concept of the equivalence of mass and energy, and why mass velocity cannot exceed the speed of light .

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Paper #6



The classic QM description of the Double Slit that every undregraduate learns, may have
some issues that need review. The following paper discusses what the author considers
to be an unresolved point.

From: DT Froedge Physics [phys-dtfroedge@glasgow-ky.com] Date (v122706)Wed. 27 Dec 2006 (33kb) Date (v122806)Thr. 28 Dec 2006 (33kb)

New Twist on Double Slit

Authors: DT Froedge
Comments: 1 pages, 0 table 0 equations
Journal-ref:
none

ABSTRACT.For those who appreciate this experiment for being the simplest demonstration of the essence of quantum mechanics, this is an enigma that has defied conventional logic. The math of QM properly describes the phenomena, and is well beyond reproach, but for those who view particles as solid objects having a definite momentum and location, though un-measurable, rather than the probability of existence at a point in time, serious rethinking is necessary. This paper poses a thought experiment, the purpose of which is to provoke a thought or two on the subject, but will not have a lot of answers.

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References:

[3] (Rainer Kaltenbaek et al, Experimental interference of independent photons )



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